The RMIT Blockchain Observatory will provide a rigorous, theoretically-informed, policy-relevant, research-relevant, and industry-relevant map of the blockchain economy. This will involve developing a method to define and measure the impact of blockchain on existing industries and its role creating new industries. That development will allow for the creation of new data sets that describe accurately the scope and significance of the blockchain economy. The RMIT Blockchain Observatory will meet an identified demand for information, data and mapping of the blockchain economy among policymakers, researchers, industry, students, media, and the general public. Understanding the size and shape of the blockchain economy is a task akin to developing a measurement of economic activity that resulted in GDP.